Turkey Agreement 2023 in Urdu Pdf

Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several groups, including the Committee Against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds required by the Constitution. [20] As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession. [9] Hatay province remained within Syria`s French mandate under the Treaty of Lausanne, but gained independence in 1938 as a Hatay state, which joined Turkey in 1939 after a referendum. Opponents of the new Turkish regime were politically amnestied, but the government reserved the right to make 150 exceptions. [28] Turkey`s 150 personae non gratae (mostly descendants of the Ottoman dynasty) slowly acquired citizenship – the last in 1974. [Citation needed] Treaty of Lausanne, (1923), last treaty to conclude the First World War. It was signed by representatives of Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) on the one hand and by Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on the other. The treaty was signed on July 24, 1923 in Lausanne, Switzerland, after a seven-month conference. The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey, but also for the protection of the Greek Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, most of Turkey`s Christian population and Greece`s Muslim population had already been expelled under the earlier agreement on the exchange of Greek and Turkish populations, signed by Greece and Turkey.

Only the Greek Orthodox of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (then about 270,000)[11] and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923) were excluded. [12] Article 14 of the Treaty granted the islands of Imbros (Gökçeada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada) a “special administrative organisation”, a right revoked by the Turkish government on 17 February 1926. Turkey also officially accepted the loss of Cyprus (which had been leased to the British Empire after the Congress of Berlin in 1878, but remained de jure Ottoman territory until World War I). Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (both of which had been occupied by British forces in 1882 under the pretext of “crushing the Urabi uprising and restoring order, but which remained de jure Ottoman territories until World War I”) were handed over to the British Empire, which had unilaterally annexed them on November 5, 1914. [3] The fate of Mosul province was left to the League of Nations. Turkey also expressly renounced any claim to the Dodecanese Islands, which Italy had to return to Turkey under Article 2 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 after the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912). [13] [14] After the withdrawal of Greek forces to Asia Minor and the expulsion of the Ottoman sultan by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Kemalist government of the Ankara-based Turkish National Movement rejected the territorial losses caused by the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres, previously signed by the Ottoman Empire. Britain had sought to undermine Turkish influence in Mesopotamia and Kirkuk by seeking the creation of a Kurdish state in eastern Anatolia.

Secular Kemalist rhetoric toned down some of the international concerns about the future of Armenians who had survived the 1915 Armenian Genocide, and support for Kurdish self-determination also waned. Under the Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923, eastern Anatolia became part of present-day Turkey, in exchange for abandoning Turkey`s Ottoman claims to oil-rich Arab countries. [7] The treaty was ratified by Turkey on 23 August 1923[4][5] and all other signatories on 16 July 1924. [6] It entered into force on August 6, 1924, when the instruments of ratification were officially deposited in Paris. [3] The treaty consisted of 143 articles with main sections, including:[9] The Treaty of Lausanne (French: Treaty of Lausanne) was a peace treaty negotiated at the Lausanne Conference of 1922/23 and signed on July 24, 1923 at the Palais de Rumine.[1][2] Lausanne, Switzerland It officially resolved the conflict that originally existed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, the British Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Empire of Japan, the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Romania since the beginning of The First World War. [3] The original text of the contract is in French. [3] This is the result of a second attempt at peace after the failure of the Treaty of Sèvres. The previous treaty had been signed in 1920, but was later rejected by the Turkish national movement, which fought against its terms. The Treaty of Lausanne ended the conflict and defined the borders of the modern Turkish Republic. In the treaty, Turkey renounced all its claims to the rest of the Ottoman Empire and, in return, the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within their new borders. [3] It provided for the exchange of Greek-Turkish population and allowed unrestricted civilian passage through the Turkish Strait (but not militarily; this would be done with the Montreux Convention). Turkey also renounced its privileges in Libya, which were defined in 1912 in Article 10 of the Treaty of Ouchy (in accordance with Article 22 of the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923).

[3] With Articles 25 and 26 of the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey officially ceded the island of Adakale in the Danube to Romania by formally recognizing the corresponding provisions of the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. [3] [16] Due to a diplomatic irregularity at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the island had technically remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Negotiations began at the Lausanne Conference. İsmet İnönü was Turkey`s chief negotiator. Lord Curzon, then British Foreign Secretary, was the Allies` chief negotiator, while Eleftherios Venizelos negotiated on behalf of Greece. The negotiations lasted several months. On November 20, 1922, the peace conference was opened; The treaty was signed on July 24 after eight months of arduous negotiations, interrupted by several Turkish withdrawals. The Allied delegation also included U.S. Admiral Mark L.

Bristol, who served as U.S. High Commissioner and supported Turkey`s efforts. [8] Lloyd George declared the treaty a “pathetic, cowardly and notorious capitulation.” [26] [29] A secret annex to the treaty grants immunity to Turkish perpetrators of crimes committed between 1914 and 1922, in particular the Armenian Genocide. .